This bibliography catalogues material about hoodoo that is not influenced in any way by modern popularizations or new attempts to "reconstruct" or "reclaim" hoodoo or to meld it with New Age or Voodoo or Wicca or other belief-systems. Most of the sources date to the era before World War Two (although, in the case of Harry Hyatt's books, the publication date came 30 years after the collection of the material). Both 19th century rural hoodoo and 20th century urban hoodoo are referenced. The bulk of these entries are extracted from a lengthier bibliography at the end of my book "Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic" (Lucky Mojo Curio Co., 2002). The added notes [in brackets] are new and deal with the provenance of the material. Additional entries consist of material that was not used as references in my book on herbs but is of general interest to those studying conjure history and practice. In addition to the books and articles cited below, many further extracts concerning hoodoo, taken from longer works, can be found online at southern-spirits.com. Many of the magazine and journal articles on hoodoo, rootwork, and conjure published during the 19th and early 20th centuries were written by African-American authors. An author's racial or cultural background would not be evident to the casual browser of the bibliography, but i mention it because i wish to make it clear that from the earliest post-Civil War period onward, African-Americans were deeply involved in the documentation of their own culture and did not need to rely on European-Americans to do it for them. Anderson, Jeffrey. Conjure in African American Society 2005; reprinted in paperback, 2007 [Note: The author's excellent doctoral thesis, published in book form; and excellent introduction to the subject.] [Anon.]. "Folklore and Ethnology" Southern Workmen and Hampton School Record. Volume 28, March, 1899. [Note: All Hampton School students were African-American.] [Anon.]. "Folklore and Ethnology" Southern Workmen and Hampton School Record. Volume 28, August, 1899. [Note: All Hampton School students were African-American.] [Anon.] "The Religious Life of the Negro Slave" Harper's New Monthly. September, October, November, 1863. [Note: Good, factual observations embedded in a racist context; author was European-American; this is the earliest publication containing a lengthy treatment of that i have located to date.] [Anon.] "Cures By Conjure Doctors." Journal of American Folk-Lore Vol. 12, 1899. Pages 288-289. [Note: Authorship credited to the "Editors" of the JAF.] [Anon.] "Voudooism -- African Fetich Worship Among The Memphis Negroes" The Memphis Appeal" [newspaper] (circa 1865 - 1867, cited by P. B. Randolph, 1870). [Note: An annotated version of this article is online at southern-spirits.com.] Bacon, Miss A[lice]. M. "Folklore and Ethnology: Conjuring and Conjure Doctors in the Southern United States" Southern Workmen and Hampton School Record. Volume 24, December, 1895. [Note: All Hampton School students were African-American.] Bivens, N. D. P. [Thomas, George A.?]. The Life and Works of Marie Laveau. [n.p., George A. Thomas, dba Crackerjack Drugstore?], [n.d., prior to 1927]. Reprinted in facsimile as Marie Laveau's Old and New Black and White Magic [Fulton Religious Supply / Dorene Publishing], [n.d., c. 1963]; reprinted in facsimile as Black and White Magic by Marie Laveau, International Imports, 1991. [Note: Marie Laveau did not write this book; it is an account of how urban hoodoo was practiced in New Orleans in the early 1920s; if George Thomas wrote it, the author was a European-American pharmacist who learned what he knew from his African-American customers. Portions of this book were quoted without credit or attribution by Zora Neale Hurston in the article "Hoodoo in America" and in turn reprinted in Hurston's book Mules and Men (see below).] Brendle, Thomas R. and Unger, Claude W. "Folk Medicine of the Pennsylvania Germans: The Non-Occult Cures" Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society. Volume XLV, Part II, 1935. [The title is a misnomer; many "occult cures" are indeed included.] [Note: Useful for comparison and sourcing of Germanic inclusions in hoodoo.] Cappick, Marie. "The Key West Story, 1818-1950" The Coral Tribune. May 2, 16, 23, 1958. [Note: This is but a short portion of the lengthy, serialized autobiography of an elderly white woman who, in this portion of the work, recalled hoodoo-associated events she had witnessed as a young women in the 19th century.] Chestnutt, Charles Wadell. The Conjure Woman. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1899. [Note: Stories by this African-American author are fictional but contain much casual and authentic data about hoodoo in pre-Civil War era.] Chireau, Yvonne P. Black Magic: Religion and the African American Conjuring Tradition. University of California Press, 2006. [Note: An overview of the practice of magic in the African Diaspora.] Clayton, Edward T. "The Truth About Voodoo" Ebony Magazine. Volume 6, April 1951. [Note: This African-American author seeks to debunk hoodoo as "superstition" but inadvertently documents it thoroughly.] Culin, Stewart. "Concerning Negro Sorcery in the United States." Journal of American Folklore. Volume 3, 1890. [Note: Author probably a white folklorist; data accurate but generally duplicated elsewhere; however, this is an early cite for much material that Hyatt collected in greater detail 40 years later.] Culin, Stewart and Bryan, Dr. H. N. "Voodooism in Philadelphia" Journal of American Folklore, Volume 2, No. 5, April - June, 1889. Pages 233-234. [Note: An annotated version of this article is online at southern-spirits.com.] Davis, Daniel Webster. "Folklore and Ethnology: Conjuration" Southern Workmen and Hampton School Record. Volume 27, December, 1898. [Note: All Hampton School students were African-American.] de Claremont, Lewis [pseudonym of [-] Young]. Legends of Incense, Herb, and Oil Magic. Oracle Publishing Co., 1936. [Note: Author was not African-American; he is said to have been Jewish Amrican; he operated one of the earliest mail-order hoodoo supply companies, and this book became a strong influence on urban hoodoo.] Deveney, John Patrick. Paschal Beverly Randolph, A Nineteenth-Century African-American Spiritualist, Rosicrucian, and Sex Magician. State University of New York Press, 1997. [Note: This biography of an African-American novelist, spiritualist, and Abolition lecturer contains only a few tangential references to hoodoo, which the Anglo-American author does not fully perceive or identify as such; however, the early date of Randolph's life (1825-1875) with respect to other printed sources make even the few allusions to hoodoo to be found in his papers extremely significant.] [Dream Number Books for Policy and Lottery Gambling] Aunt Sally's Policy Players Dream Book and others Billy Bing's Dream Book Kansas City Kitty Dream Book Madam Fu-Fu's Lucky Number Dream Book Pick'Em Dream Book by Rajah Rabo (Carl Z. Talbot) Professor Konje, Professor De Herbert (Herbert G. Parris) Rajah Rabo's 5-Star Mutuel Dream Book by Rajah Rabo (Carl Z. Talbot) Rajah's Lucky Number Dream Book by Rajah Stanley Stella's Lucky Seven Star Dream Book Stella's Success From Dreams: Number Interpretations True Fortune Teller by The Gypsy King (Ralph Anderson) Fauset, Arthur Huff. Black Gods of the Metropolis: Negro Religious Cults of the Urban North. Issued also as the author's thesis, University of Pennsylvania. Issued in 1944 by the University of Pennsylvania as Brinton Memorial Series No. 2; Philadelphia Anthropological Society Publications, v. 3. Reprinted in 1970 and again in 2002 by the Unversity of zPennsylvania with a new introduction by John Szwed and foreword by Barbara Dianne Savage [Note: This book is an anthropological examination of black religious groups in Philadelphia, including some of the lesser known groups that dealt in non-mainstream religious beliefs and practices.] Fogel, Edwin Miller. Beliefs and Superstitions of the Pennsylvania Germans. American Germanica Press, 1913. [Note: Useful for comparison and sourcing of Germanic inclusions in hoodoo.] Gamache, Henri [pseudonym of [-] Young?]. The Magic of Herbs Throughout the Ages. Sheldon Publications, 1942. [Note: Author may have been African-American and/or Jewish American; in any case, this book and his others, especially The Master Book of Candle Burning, became a strong influence on post World War Two urban hoodoo.] Hall, Julien A. "Negro Conjuring and Tricking" Journal of American Folk-Lore Vol. 10, 1897. [Note: "tricking" in African-American hoodoo parlance means casting a spell; it does not mean fooling someone. -cat] Harris, Bernice Kelly, ed., Creative Writing Group of Chowan College. Southern Home Remedies. Johnson Publishing Co., 1968. [Note: Author was an African-American novelist; this is a non-fiction book she compiled with contributions from others, most of them elderly, as was she too at the time of this work.] Harris, Joel Chandler. The Complete Tales of Uncle Remus. Houghton Mifflin, 1955. [Written 1876 - 1908, the stories were first published in the Atlanta Constitution, then in several book collections, 1880 - 1948.] [Note: Author was European-American; scant reference to hoodoo throughout the tales; as with Randolph (see Deveney, above) it is the early date of the material, not its depth, that recommends it.] Haskins, Jim. Voodoo and Hoodoo. Scarborough House Publishers, 1978; Stein and Day, 1978. [Note: Author was a prolific African-American non-fiction writer; he had a generally negative attitude toward hoodoo as "superstition" -- despite this, he documented a lot of material, much of it from his grandmother and other elders. Voodoo and Hoodoo by Jim Haskins is for sale by the Lucky Mojo Curio Co. Occult Shop.] Hearn, Lafcadio. "New Orleans Superstitions," Harper's Weekly [magazine], December, 1886. [Note: An annotated version of this article is online at southern-spirits.com.] Herrick, James W. Iroquois Medical Botany. Syracuse Press, 1995. [Note: Author was European-American; this book is useful for comparison and sourcing of Native American inclusions in hoodoo.] Herron, Leonora. "Folklore and Ethnology: Conjuring and Conjure Doctors in the Southern United States," Southern Workmen and Hampton School Record. Volume 24 [in two parts], July and November, 1895. [Note: All Hampton School students were African-American; aside from glancing references in 19th century slave narratives this is the earliest published material on hoodoo by an African-American person that i have located to date; Chestnutt's fictional writings on hoodoo describe events that took place earlier, but he published four years after Leonora Herron and Alice Bacon did.] Herron, Miss [Leonora] and Bacon, Miss A[lice]. M. "Folklore Scrapbook" Journal of American Folklore. Volume 9, 1896. [A "reprint in extenso" of the 1895 three-part "Conjuring and Conjure Doctors in the Southern United States," by Herron (two parts) and Bacon (one part) originally published in a lengthier form in Southern Workman and Hampton School Record; listed here for the sake of completion only.] [Note: All Hampton School students were African-American. The information published by Misses Herron and Bacon, collected from students at the all-black Hampton Institute in Virginia, is especially valuable. Among other things, the authors describe a clear instance of the use of what some today call a "voodoo doll" -- but made during the time before these were manufactured of cloth ("something all wrapped up in hair and all kinds of other queer-looking things"). They also make frequent references to footprint magic.] Hohman, John George [Johann Georg]. Pow-Wows or The Long Lost Friend. Stein, c. 1935; Dorene, c. 1960.[These variant 3rd editions derive from the 1st and 2nd English editions of The Long- Secreted Friend or A True and Christian Information for Everybody; Containing Wonderful and Approved Remedies and Arts for Men and Beast. John G. Hohman, 1846; T. F. Scheffer, 1856. The 1846 edition was translated by the author from the 1824 2nd edition of his 1820 German book. The 1856 translator is uncredited.] [Note: Useful for comparison and sourcing of German inclusions in hoodoo. There is a more complete article on Pow Wows or the Long Lost Friend by John George Hohman in "Hoodoo =in Theory and Practice by catherine yronwode.] Hurston, Zora Neale. Mules and Men. J. B. Lippincott, 1935. Reprinted, Harper Collins, 1990. [Note: Author was an African-American novelist; this non-fiction book is based on her earlier work as a folklorist, some of it published in J.A.F. cited below. Mules and Men by Zora Neale Huston is for sale by the Lucky Mojo Curio Co. Occult Shop] ---------. "Hoodoo in America" Journal of American Folklore. Volume 44, 1931. [Note: Much of this material went into the book "Mules and Men".] ---------, The Federal Writers Project in Florida. The Negro in Florida, 1528-1940. [unpublished incomplete ms.] [n.d., circa 1940.] [Note: This does not duplicate any of Hurston's published material.] Hyatt, Harry Middleton. Hoodoo - Conjuration - Witchcraft - Rootwork. [Five Vols.] Memoirs of the Alma Egan Hyatt Foundation, 1970-1978. [Note: Author was a European-American Anglican priest whose hobbies were folklore and genealogy; material consists of transcriptions from cylinder field recordings of interviews with 1,599 African Americans and 1 Anglo-American; the bulk of the interviews were conducted between 1936 and 1940. See article on The Writings of Harry Hyatt and article on Identifying Harry Hyatt's informants in Hoodoo in Theory and Practice by catherine yronwode.] ---------. Folklore from Adams County Illinois. Memoirs of the Alma Egan Hyatt Foundation, 1935. [and the rewritten Revised 2nd Edition, Memoirs of the Alma Egan Hyatt Foundation, 1965.] [Note: Spells are grouped by type; data is partially identified by the ethnicity of the informant; e.g. "German," "Irish," "Negro," etc.; contains a lengthy section on hoodoo. See article on The Writings of Harry Hyatt and article on Identifying Harry Hyatt's informants in Hoodoo in Theory and Practice by catherine yronwode.] Jacobs, Claude F., and Andrew J. Kaslow. The Spiritual Churches Of New Orleans: Origins, Beliefs, And Rituals Of An African American Religion. University of Tennessee Press, 2001. Johnson, F. Roy. The Fabled Dr. Jim Jordan, A Story of Conjure. Johnson Publishing Co., 1963; revised ed. 1968. [Note: Author was a European-American small-town journalist who wrote and published books about the South, including several on Native American and African-American culture (he published the Bernice Harris book cited above, for instance); this book is in essence a lengthy obituary for the locally famed African-American root doctor Jim Jordan of Como, North Carolina (practicing circa 1905-1962), it contains contributions from his family members, several of whom were also professional root workers; it includes the family's herb lists, as well as a list of occult books Jim Jordan owned, consulted, and sold in the general store / conjure shop he operated from 1927-1962.] Laforest, Aura. Hoodoo Spiritual Baths: Cleansing Conjure with Washes and Waters. Lucky Mojo Curio Co., 2014. Leland, Charles Godfrey. Etruscan Roman Remains in Popular Tradition. Scribners, 1892. [Note: Author was a European-American folklorist; the book is of interest primarily due to its inclusion of correspondence between Leland and Mary Alicia Owen. q.v.] Linton, Ralph. Purification of the Sacred Bundles: A Ceremony of the Pawnee. Leaflet No. 7, Field Museum of Natural History, 1923. [Note: Useful for comparison and sourcing of Native American inclusions in hoodoo, particularly the sacred nature of the raccoon penis bone.] Long, Carolyn Morrow. Spiritual Merchants: Religion, Magic, and Commerce. University of Tennessee Press, 2001. [Note: Author is European-American; book details the history of the mass distribution of hoodoo herbs and manufactured spiritual supplies during the 20th century.] McLean, Patricia S. "Conjure Doctors in Eastern North Carolina." North Carolina Folklore, Vol. 20, 1972. Pages 21-29. [Meyer, Joseph E; Meyer, Clarence; Meyer, David.] The Herbalist Almanac. Calumet Herb Co., 1920 - 1970. [Note: Authors were a trio of three generations of European-American herb-growers and hobby folklorists who supplied herbs to companies that distributed to pharmacies, private mail order customers, and Southern African-American conjure shops of the 1920s-50s; their yearly catalogues contained much historical and contemporary magical herb-lore; the contemporary data they collected during world travels and from their own customers; not merely a good source for hoodoo material but also rich with anecdotes about Afro-Caribbean herb-magic.] Moore, Ruby Andrews. "Superstitions of Georgia" [I] Journal of American Folk-Lore Vol. 5, 1892. ---------. "Superstitions From Georgia" [II] Journal of American Folklore. Volume 7, 1894. ---------. "Superstitions of Georgia" [III] Journal of American Folk-Lore Vol. 9, 1896. [Note: Author was a European-American folklorist.] Norris, Thaddeus. "Negro Superstitions" Lippincott's Magazine. July 1870. [Note: Good, factual observations embedded in a racist context; author was European-American; this piece was arguably the source from which Joel Chandler Harris (see above) drew his first published account of Negro tales. Also contains a good account of hag-riding folklore. An annotated version of this article is online at southern-spirits.com.] Owen, Mary Alicia. Voodoo Tales as Told Among the Negroes of the Southwest, Collected from Original Sources. Putnam, 1893. [Note: Author was a European-American folklorist who grew up with many African-Americans around her and, like the earlier Joel Chandler Harris, wrote down the tales, folklore, and magical information that were related to her; as with Joel Chandler Harris (but not Newbell Niles Puckett), any racialist tinges in her work were naive rather than mean-spirited. One of the pieces in this collection, Hoodoo Luck-Balls, is online at southern-spirits.com.] Park, Sallie M. "Voodooism in Tennessee" Atlantic Monthly, September 1889. [Note: Good, factual observations embedded in a racist context; author was a European-American slave-owner. An annotated version of this article is online at southern-spirits.com.] Pendleton, Louis. "Negro Folk-Lore and Witchcraft in the South" Journal of American Folk-Lore Vol. 3, 1890. Puckett, Newbell Niles. Folk Beliefs of the Southern Negro. University of North Carolina Press, 1926. [Note: Good, factual observations embedded in a racist context; author was a European-American folklorist.] Steiner, Roland. "Observations of the Practice of Conjuring in Georgia" Journal of American Folklore. Volume 14, 1901. Pages 173-180. [Note: Author was a European-American folklorist.] Strabo, Mikhail [Sydney J. R. Steiner]. The Magic Formula for Successful Prayer. Guidance House, 1942. Thomas, Daniel Lindsey, Ph.D. and Thomas, Lucy Blayney, M.A. Kentucky Superstitions. Princeton University Press, Princeton N. J. 1920; Oxford University Press, London. 1920. [Note: The authors were European-American folklorists. At the time of publication, Daniel Lindsey Thomas was "Late Professor of English at Centre College, and Founder and President of The Kentucky Branch Of The American Folk-Lore Society" and Lucy Blayney Thomas was "Teacher of English at Ward-Belmont School, Nashville, Tennessee." Most of the material collected concerns the folk beliefs and folk magic of European Americans in Kentucky, but there are also sections devoted to "Negroes," categorized as "Louisville Negroes," "Blue Grass Negroes," "Central Kentucky Negroes," and so forth. The entire text is online here. Trachtenberg, Joshua. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. Behrman’s Jewish book house, New York, 1939. Weeks, John H. "The Congo Medicine-Man and His Black and White Magic." Folk-Lore 21, 1910. Pages 445-471. Wicker, Christine. "Not In Kansas Anymore: A Curious Tale of How Magic Is Trasforming America" HarperCollins, 2005. [Note: A tour of magical America, with visits to vampires, hermetic occultists, elves, and several hoodoo rootwork practitioners, including catherine yronwode and nagasiva yronwode, the co-owners of The Lucky Mojo Curio Co.; and Dr. Christos Kioni, co-host and producer of The Lucky Mojo Hoodoo Rootwork Hour Radio Show. See also the Free Online Subject Index to Not In Kansas Anymore: A Curious Tale of How Magic Is Transforming America by Christine Wicker. Yates, Irene. "Conjures and Cures in the Novels of Julia Peterkin." Southern Folklore Quarterly 10, 1946. Pages 137-149. [Note: This deals with conjure in fiction.] Yronwode, Catherine and Mikhail Strabo [Sydney J. R. Steiner]. The Art of Hoodoo Candle Magic. Missionary Independent Spiritual Church, 2013. Many of these books and articles can be had through interlibrary loan or via a large university library. Good luck, cat yronwode Lucky Mojo Curio Co. Occult Shop http://www.luckymojo.com/catalogue
Acknowledgements: Thanks to Eoghan Ballard, Jeff Anderson, Carolyn Morrow Long, and David Anthony Liam Bell for bringing some of these materials to my attention.
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